A doll is a model of a human being, often used as a toy for children. Dolls have traditionally been used in magic and religious rituals throughout the world, and traditional dolls made of materials such as clay and wood are found in the Americas, Asia, Africa and Europe. The earliest documented dolls go back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece and Rome. The use of dolls as toys was documented in Greece around 100AD. They have been made as crude, rudimentary playthings as well as elaborate art. Modern doll manufacturing has its roots in Germany, going back to the 15th century. With industrialization and new materials such as porcelain and plastic, dolls were increasingly mass-produced. During the 20th century dolls became increasingly popular as collectibles.
History, types and materials
Early history and traditional dolls
The earliest dolls were made from available materials such as clay, stone, wood, bone, ivory, leather, wax, etc. Archaeological evidence places dolls as foremost candidate for oldest known toy. Wooden paddle dolls have been found in Egyptian tombs dating to as early as 21st century BC. Dolls with movable limbs and removable clothing date back to at least 200BC. Greek dolls were made of clay and articulated at the hips and shoulders. There are stories from ancient Greece around 100AD that show that dolls were used by little girls as playthings. In Rome dolls were made of clay, wood or ivory. Dolls have been found in the graves of Roman children. Like children today, the younger members of Roman civilization would have dressed their dolls according to the latest fashions. When Greek and Roman girls got married they would dedicate their doll to a goddess.Rag dolls are traditionally home-made from spare scraps of cloth material. Roman rag dolls have been found dating back to 300BC.
Although the original production was not a success, the 20-minute suite that Tchaikovsky extracted from the ballet was. However, the complete Nutcracker has enjoyed enormous popularity since the late 1960s, and is now performed by countless ballet companies, primarily during the Christmas season, especially in North America. Major American ballet companies generate around 40 percent of their annual ticket revenues from performances of The Nutcracker.
Tchaikovsky's score has become one of his most famous compositions, in particular the pieces featured in the suite. Among other things, the score is noted for its use of the celesta, an instrument that the composer had already employed in his much lesser known symphonic balladThe Voyevoda.
Sayaka Kanda(神田 沙也加,Kanda Sayaka, born October 1, 1986) is a Japanese actress and singer. She is the only child of pop singer Seiko Matsuda and actor Masaki Kanda. Her paternal grandmother is former actress Teruko Asahi.
Kanda was born in Setagaya, Tokyo. In 1999, while a student at a Japanese school in Los Angeles, she appeared in Bean Cake, a short film which won the Palme d'Or du court métrage at the 2001 Cannes Film Festival. She has been quite active as an actress on movies and mostly on stage since her debut. She also has written some lyrics for her mother Seiko Matsuda's songs.
In July 2012 she debuted as a voice actress on TV animation Good Luck Girl!, which led her to be cast as Anna in Japanese version of Frozen.
In April 2014, she formed a duo called TRUSTRICK with a guitarist Billy. They released debut album "Eternity" on June 25.
Sayaka Kanda appeared as a special guest in the Alan Symphony Concert from December 20, 2014 alongside Tibetan Chinese diva Alan Dawa Dolma, and together, they sang a music piece originally performed by Alan titled "風の手紙"/"Kaze no Tegami" (Letter in the Wind).